ID literature review

2019 - 2nd Quarter

Original Research Articles*

June 2019

solithromycin for gonorrhea

Solithromycin versus ceftriaxone plus azithromycin for the treatment of uncomplicated genital gonorrhoea (SOLITAIRE-U): a randomised phase 3 non-inferiority trial (Lancet Infectious Diseases 6/2019) ARTICLE & EDITORIAL

  • Solithromycin (single dose), a 4th generation macrolide, was not found to be non-inferior to ceftriaxone (IM) + azithromycin (oral) for uncomplicated genital gonorrhea treatment

azithromycin and reduction of childhood mortality in africa

Longer-Term Assessment of Azithromycin for Reducing Childhood Mortality in Africa (NEJM 6/2019) ARTICLE & EDITORIAL& CORRESPONDENCE

  • Mass administration of azithromycin in Niger  reduced  postneonatal childhood mortality, and this effect on mortality did not wane in the 3rd year of treatment

Effect of Adding Azithromycin to Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (NEJM 6/2019) ARTICLE & EDITORIAL

  • Addition of azithromycin did not result in decreased mortality; however, there were decreased  GI infections, upper respiratory infections, and nonmalarial febrile illnesses

HPV Vaccination - systematic review

Population-level impact and herd effects following the introduction of human papillomavirus vaccination programmes: updated systematic review and meta-analysis (Lancet 6/2019) ARTICLE & EDITORIAL

  • HPV vaccination has had a substantial impact on the prevalence of HPV infections, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and anogenital warts

Novel serotype 2 oral poliovirus vaccine: Phase 1 study

The safety and immunogenicity of two novel live attenuated monovalent (serotype 2) oral poliovirus vaccines in healthy adults: a double-blind, single-centre phase 1 study (Lancet 6/2019) ARTICLE & EDITORIAL

  • Two novel OPV2 vaccines designed to stabilise the poliovirus genome against acquisition of neurovirulence were shown to be safe and immunogenic and showed low reversion to neurovirulence.

hormonal contraceptive method & incidence of HIv infection

HIV incidence among women using intramuscular depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, a copper intrauterine device, or a levonorgestrel implant for contraception: a randomised, multicentre, open-label trial (Lancet 6/2019) ARTICLE & EDITORIAL

  • There was no difference in incident HIV infection among African women using intramuscular depot medroxyprogesterone, copper intrauterine device, or levonorgestrel implant

HIV PrEP & SCREENING: US PREVENTIVE SERVICES TASK FORCE STATEMENTS

Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection (JAMA 6/2019) STATEMENT & SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

 Screening for HIV Infection (JAMA 6/2019) STATEMENT & SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS (PREGNANT WOMEN) (ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS)

diagnosis of meningitis and encephalitis by metagenomic next-generation sequencing

Clinical Metagenomic Sequencing for Diagnosis of Meningitis and Encephalitis (NEJM 6/2019) ARTICLE

  • Metagenomic next-generation sequencing of CSF improved diagnosis of meningitis and encephalitis by identifying infections not identified by routine microbiological testing

chlorhexidine for meatal cleaning before urinary catheter insertion

Chlorhexidine for meatal cleaning in reducing catheter-associated urinary tract infections: a multicentre stepped-wedge randomised controlled trial (Lancet Infectious Diseases 6/2019) ARTICLE & EDITORIAL

  • Use of chlorhexidine for meatal cleaning before urinary catheter insertion (compared to using normal saline) decreased asymptomatic bacteriuria & catheter-associated UTI

CRE INFECTION IN LOW AND MIDDLE INCOME COUNTRIES

Effect of carbapenem resistance on outcomes of bloodstream infection caused by Enterobacteriaceae in low-income and middle-income countries (PANORAMA): a multinational prospective cohort study (Lancet Infectious Diseases 6/2019) ARTICLE & EDITORIAL

  • Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream infections were associated with increased mortality and hospital length of stay

May 2019

antibiotic prophylaxis in operative vaginal delivery

Prophylactic antibiotics in the prevention of infection after operative vaginal delivery (ANODE): a multicentre randomised controlled trial (Lancet 5/2019) ARTICLE & EDITORIAL

  • Prophylactic amoxicillin-clavulanic acid after operative vaginal birth reduced the incidence of maternal infection including perineal incisional infection

public health: vaccine coverage in africa & Helminths

Mapping diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine coverage in Africa, 2000-2016: a spatial and temporal modelling study (Lancet 5/2019) ARTICLE

  • Marked inequalities in DPT coverage persist throughout Africa

Effects, equity, and cost of school-based and community-wide treatment strategies for soil-transmitted helminths in Kenya: a cluster-randomised controlled trial (Lancet 5/2019) ARTICLE

  • Community wide treatment with albendazole was more effective in reducing hookworm prevalence than school based treatment

Discovery of short-course antiwolbachial quinazolines for elimination of filarial worm infections (Science Translational Medicine 5/2019) ARTICLE

  • A potential alternative to doxycycline for targeting Wolbachia, a bacterial endosymbiont required for filarial viability and reproduction

direct-from-blood diagnosis of bacteremia

Performance of the T2Bacteria Panel for Diagnosing Bloodstream Infections: A Diagnostic Accuracy Study (Annals of Internal Medicine 5/2019) ARTICLE

  • Performance of a direct-from-blood nonculture test that identifies E. faecium, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli

Fournier gangrene associated with SGLT2 inhibitors

Fournier Gangrene Associated With Sodium–Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors: A Review of Spontaneous Postmarketing Cases (Annals of Internal Medicine 5/2019) ARTICLE 

  • There were 55 unique cases of Fournier gangrene identified by the FDA in patients receiving sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors

thrombomodulin for sepsis & novel phenotypes for sepsis

Effect of a Recombinant Human Soluble Thrombomodulin on Mortality in Patients With Sepsis-Associated Coagulopathy: The SCARLET Randomized Clinical Trial (JAMA 5/2019) ARTICLE & EDITORIAL

  • Human recombinant thrombomodulin did not reduce mortality

Derivation, Validation, and Potential Treatment Implications of Novel Clinical Phenotypes for Sepsis (JAMA 5/2019) ARTICLE

  • Four novel phenotypes of sepsis were identified

Use of an oral beta-lactamase for prevention of c. difficile infection

Use of ribaxamase (SYN-004), a β-lactamase, to prevent Clostridium difficile infection in β-lactam-treated patients: a double-blind, phase 2b, randomised placebo-controlled trial (Lancet Infectious Diseases 5/2019) ARTICLE & EDITORIAL

  • Ribaxamase (orally) when used with ceftriaxone (IV) for lower respiratory infections, decreased risk of C difficile infection, although more deaths were reported in the ribaxamase group

equine encephalitis vaccine

A virus-like particle vaccine prevents equine encephalitis virus infection in nonhuman primates (Science Translational Medicine 5/2019) ARTICLE

  • Development of a trivalent vaccine against Western, Eastern, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses

LATENT TB WITH NEGATIVE IFN-γ TEST

IFN-γ-independent immune markers of Mycobacterium tuberculosis exposure (Nature Medicine 5/2019) ARTICLE  

  • Individuals with negative IFN-γ & tuberculin skin test, but who were highly exposed to Mtb, had immunologic evidence of exposure to Mtb

Alongshan virus: A NOVEL VIRUS ISOLATED IN CHINA

A New Segmented Virus Associated with Human Febrile Illness in China (NEJM 5/2019) ARTICLE& EDITORIAL

  • A newly discovered virus in northeastern China found to be associated with fever, headache, and history of tick bites 

prevention of Cardiac Implantable Device Infection WITH ANTIBIOTIC ENVELOPE

Antibacterial Envelope to Prevent Cardiac Implantable Device Infection (NEJM 5/2019) ARTICLE & EDITORIAL 

  • Use of an absorbable antibiotic-eluting (minocycline and rifampin) envelope reduced the incidence of CIED infection

Gentamicin for gonorrhea

Gentamicin compared with ceftriaxone for the treatment of gonorrhoea (G-ToG): a randomised non-inferiority trial (Lancet 5/2019) ARTICLE

  • Gentamicin (IM) was not found to be non-inferior to ceftriaxone (IM), particularly in subgroups with pharyngeal and rectal infection

HIV: risk of HIV transmission & immediate therapy of acute HIV

Risk of HIV transmission through condomless sex in serodifferent gay couples with the HIV-positive partner taking suppressive antiretroviral therapy (PARTNER): final results of a multicentre, prospective, observational study (Lancet 5/2019) ARTICLE & EDITORIAL

  • Risk of HIV transmission in gay couples through condomless sex when HIV-positive partner was virally suppressed was effectively zero 

Augmentation of HIV-specific T cell function by immediate treatment of hyperacute HIV-1 infection (Science Translational Medicine 5/2019) ARTICLE 

  • Limiting acute viremia after acute HIV infection resulted in enhanced functionality of HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells

April 2019

Long-Term Outcomes of Partial Oral Treatment of Endocarditis

Long-Term Outcomes of Partial Oral Treatment of Endocarditis (NEJM 4/2019) ARTICLE

  • Change from IV to early oral antibiotic treatment was not associated with delayed treatment failure

HEPATITIS C outcomes after direct-acting antiviral therapy

Clinical outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis C after direct-acting antiviral treatment: a prospective cohort study (Lancet 4/2019) ARTICLE

  • Treatment was associated with reduced all-cause mortality and reduced hepatocellular carcinoma

HEPATITIS C TREATMENT FOR PEOPLE WHO INJECT DRUGS

Intensive Models of Hepatitis C Care for People Who Inject Drugs Receiving Opioid Agonist Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial (Annals of Internal Medicine 4/2019) ARTICLE

  • DOT resulted in greater adherence than self-administered individual treatment, but no significant difference in overall SVR

organ transplant from HCV-Infected Donors to Uninfected Recipients

Heart and Lung Transplants from HCV-Infected Donors to Uninfected Recipients (NEJM 4/2019) ARTICLE & EDITORIAL

  • Treatment with sofosbuvir–velpatasvir within a few hours after transplant prevented the establishment of HCV infection

environmental cleaning bundle and hospital-associated infections

An environmental cleaning bundle and health-care-associated infections in hospitals (REACH): a multicentre, randomised trial (Lancet Infectious Diseases 4/2019) ARTICLE & EDITORIAL

  • An environmental cleaning bundle was associated with reduction in VRE infections, but no change in C. difficile infection or Staph aureus bacteremia

PrEP AND RISK OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS

Association of HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis With Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Individuals at High Risk of HIV Infection (JAMA 4/2019) ARTICLE

  • Receipt of PrEP was associated with an increased incidence of STIs

HIV: treatment with Anti-CD4 Antibody

Effect of Anti-CD4 Antibody UB-421 on HIV-1 Rebound after Treatment Interruption (NEJM 4/2019) ARTICLE

  • After stopping ART and starting UB-421, all participants maintained viral suppression in the absence of ART

malaria preventive treatment in pregnant women

Monthly sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine versus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: a double-blind, randomised, controlled, superiority trial (Lancet 4/2019) ARTICLE

  • There were no differences in birth outcomes between dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in this population in Uganda

Disclosures at the time of publication for all articles: None