ID literature review

2019 - 3rd Quarter

Original Research Articles*

September 2019

N95 respirators vs medical masks for preventing influenza

N95 Respirators vs Medical Masks for Preventing Influenza Among Health Care Personnel: A Randomized Clinical Trial (JAMA 9/2019) ARTICLE

  • In this cluster randomized trial, use of N95 respirators as compared with medical masks did not reduce the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza, acute respiratory illness, laboratory-detected respiratory infections, laboratory-confirmed respiratory illness, and influenza-like illness.

August 2019

Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB)

Risk Factors and Outcomes Associated With Treatment of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Hospitalized Patients (JAMA Internal Medicine 8/2019) ARTICLE

  • In this retrospective cohort study of around 2700 patients with ASB, roughly 80% were treated with antibiotics; there were no difference in outcomes with the exception of longer length of stay (4 vs 3 days) after urine testing for patients treated with antibiotics

Sertraline and cryptococcal meningitis

Adjunctive sertraline for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase 3 trial (Lancet Infectious Diseases 8/2019) ARTICLE

  • Adjunctive sertraline added to standard antifungal therapy did not decrease mortality and did not affect the fungal clearance rate from the CSF

Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) Inhibitors and UTI

Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors and the Risk for Severe Urinary Tract Infections: A Population-Based Cohort Study (Annals of Internal Medicine 8/2019) ARTICLE & EDITORIAL

  • In this cohort study with propensity score matching, there was no difference in the risk of UTI with SGLT-2 inhibitors as compared with other 2nd line anti-diabetic medications (dipeptidyl peptidase-4 [DPP-4] inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor [GLP-1] agonists)

July 2019

antibiotic use without prescription

Use of Antibiotics Without a Prescription in the U.S. Population: A Scoping Review (Annals of Internal Medicine 7/2019) ARTICLE

  • Use of antibiotics without a prescription was found to be prevalent, including from prior prescribed courses, local markets or stores, & family or friends

Adverse events after transition from hospital back to nursing home

Adverse Events in Long-term Care Residents Transitioning From Hospital Back to Nursing Home (JAMA Internal Medicine 7/2019) ARTICLE

  • Long term care (LTC) residents who were hospitalized and transitioned back to the same LTC suffered adverse events in close to 4 of 10 discharges, including pressure ulcers, skin tears, falls with injury, healthcare-associated infections, and adverse drug events, with a majority considered preventable or ameliorable

CRP guided antibiotic use in copd exacerbation

C-Reactive Protein Testing to Guide Antibiotic Prescribing for COPD Exacerbations (NEJM 7/2019) ARTICLE & EDITORIAL 

  • CRP testing to guide antibiotic prescribing for COPD exacerbations resulted in lower antibiotic use without evidence for harm

causes of severe pneumonia in children from africa and asia

Causes of severe pneumonia requiring hospital admission in children without HIV infection from Africa and Asia: the PERCH multi-country case-control study (Lancet 7/2019) ARTICLE & EDITORIAL 

  • Viruses were estimated to cause around 61% of cases of severe pneumonia in children < 5 years old, with bacteria causing around 27%, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis causing around 6%

neural tube defects and use of dolutegravir

Neural-Tube Defects and Antiretroviral Treatment Regimens in Botswana (NEJM 7/2019) ARTICLE& EDITORIAL

  • The prevalence of neural tube defects was higher with dolutegravir exposure at conception as compared with other types of ART exposure

Dolutegravir Use at Conception — Additional Surveillance Data from Botswana (NEJM 7/2019) ARTICLE

  • Additional data regarding neural tube defects associated with dolutegravir exposure at conception

REcombinant zoster vaccine after stem cell transplant

Effect of Recombinant Zoster Vaccine on Incidence of Herpes Zoster After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Randomized Clinical Trial (JAMA 7/2019) ARTICLE

  • Recombinant zoster vaccine (2 dose course) reduced the incidence of herpes zoster following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Mortality from meningitis in Botswana

Mortality in adult patients with culture-positive and culture-negative meningitis in the Botswana national meningitis survey: a prevalent cohort study (Lancet Infectious Diseases 7/2019) ARTICLE & EDITORIAL 

  • Almost half of adult patients with pneumococcal, tuberculous, and culture-negative meningitis in Botswana died within 1 year of lumbar puncture

DOLUTEGRAVIR-containing regimens and weight gain

Dolutegravir plus Two Different Prodrugs of Tenofovir to Treat HIV (NEJM 7/2019) ARTICLE & EDITORIAL

  • Emtricitabine (FTC) + Dolutegravir (DTG) + either TAF or TDF was non-inferior to standard regimen (FTC+TDF+Efavirenz).  Weight increase was significantly higher with DTG-containing regimens (DTG with TAF mean increase 6.4 kg; DTG with TDF 3.2 kg) than standard regimen (1.7 kg)

universal testing and treatment of HIv

Universal Testing, Expanded Treatment, and Incidence of HIV Infection in Botswana (NEJM 7/2019) ARTICLE & EDITORIAL

  • In Botswana, expanded HIV testing and counseling, linkage to care, ART coverage, and increased access to male circumcision was associated with decreased HIV incidence and increased percentage of HIV-positive participants with viral suppression as compared with standard care

Effect of Universal Testing and Treatment on HIV Incidence – HPTN 071 (PopART) (NEJM 7/2019) ARTICLE& EDITORIAL

  • In Zambia and South Africa, a combination prevention intervention (e.g. home based HIV testing, linkage to HIV care, ART adherence) + ART provided according to local guidelines resulted in a lower incidence of HIV infection than standard care, but there was no difference as compared with a combination prevention intervention + universal ART

HIV Testing and Treatment with the Use of a Community Health Approach in Rural Africa (NEJM 7/2019) ARTICLE& EDITORIAL

  • In Uganda and Kenya, universal HIV treatment did not result in a lower incidence of HIV infection as compared with standard care (national guideline-restricted ART)

Disclosures at the time of publication for all articles: None